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Officially autonomous within Georgia,  the de facto independent region of Abkhazia declared independence in South Ossetia is officially known by Georgia as the Tskinvali region, as it views "South Ossetia" as implying political bonds with Russian North Ossetia.
Its autonomous status was revoked in De facto separate since Georgian independence, offers were made to give South Ossetia autonomy again, but in an unrecognised referendum in the area resulted in a vote for independence.
In both Abkhazia and South Ossetia large numbers of people had been given Russian passports, some through a process of forced passportization by Russian authorities.
Adjara under local strongman Aslan Abashidze maintained close ties with Russia and allowed a Russian military base to be maintained in Batumi.
Upon the election of Mikheil Saakashvili in tensions rose between Abashidze and the Georgian government, leading to demonstrations in Adjara and the resignation and flight of Abashidze.
The region retains autonomy, and as a sign of Ajaria's reconnection with the central Georgian government, the Georgian Constitutional Court was moved from T'bilisi to Batumi.
Georgia is mostly situated in the South Caucasus , while parts of the country are also located in the North Caucasus.
It is a very mountainous country. The Likhi Range divides the country into eastern and western halves.
Because of a complex geographic setting, mountains also isolate the northern region of Svaneti from the rest of Georgia.
The southern portion of the country is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The term Lesser Caucasus Mountains is often used to describe the mountainous highland areas of southern Georgia that are connected to the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range by the Likhi Range.
Prominent features of the area include the Javakheti Volcanic Plateau , lakes, including Tabatskuri and Paravani, as well as mineral water and hot springs.
Two major rivers in Georgia are the Rioni and the Mtkvari. The Southern Georgia Volcanic Highland is a young and unstable geologic region with high seismic activity and has experienced some of the most significant earthquakes that have been recorded in Georgia.
The Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave in the world. The atlas was presented at the Frankfurt Book Fair , where Georgia was the guest of honor.
Over large-format thematic maps and figures provide information on all relevant topics concerning the country, from Physical and Human Geography , to Economics and Politics.
The detailed table of contents is bilingual English, German , and helps to find texts and maps easily. The landscape within the nation's boundaries is quite varied.
Western Georgia's landscape ranges from low-land marsh-forests, swamps, and temperate rainforests to eternal snows and glaciers, while the eastern part of the country even contains a small segment of semi-arid plains.
Much of the natural habitat in the low-lying areas of western Georgia has disappeared during the past years because of the agricultural development of the land and urbanization.
The large majority of the forests that covered the Colchis plain are now virtually non-existent with the exception of the regions that are included in the national parks and reserves e.
Lake Paliastomi area. At present, the forest cover generally remains outside of the low-lying areas and is mainly located along the foothills and the mountains.
Evergreen species such as box may also be found in many areas. The west-central slopes of the Meskheti Range in Ajaria as well as several locations in Samegrelo and Abkhazia are covered by temperate rain forests.
The zone is made up mainly of beech, spruce , and fir forests. The eternal snow and glacier zone lies above the 3,metre line.
Eastern Georgia's landscape referring to the territory east of the Likhi Range is considerably different from that of the west, although, much like the Colchis plain in the west, nearly all of the low-lying areas of eastern Georgia including the Mtkvari and Alazani River plains have been deforested for agricultural purposes.
In addition, because of the region's relatively drier climate, some of the low-lying plains especially in Kartli and south-eastern Kakheti were never covered by forests in the first place.
The general landscape of eastern Georgia comprises numerous valleys and gorges that are separated by mountains. In contrast with western Georgia, nearly 85 percent of the forests of the region are deciduous.
Coniferous forests only dominate in the Borjomi Gorge and in the extreme western areas. Out of the deciduous species of trees, beech , oak , and hornbeam dominate.
Other deciduous species include several varieties of maple , aspen , ash, and hazelnut. The Upper Alazani River Valley contains yew forests.
The only remaining large, low-land forests remain in the Alazani Valley of Kakheti. The climate of Georgia is extremely diverse, considering the nation's small size.
There are two main climatic zones, roughly corresponding to the eastern and western parts of the country. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays an important role in moderating Georgia's climate and protects the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the north.
The Lesser Caucasus Mountains partially protect the region from the influence of dry and hot air masses from the south. The precipitation tends to be uniformly distributed throughout the year, although the rainfall can be particularly heavy during the Autumn months.
The climate of the region varies significantly with elevation and while much of the lowland areas of western Georgia are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas including both the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters snow cover often exceeds 2 meters in many regions.
Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region's weather patterns are influenced both by dry Caspian air masses from the east and humid Black Sea air masses from the west.
The penetration of humid air masses from the Black Sea is often blocked by mountain ranges Likhi and Meskheti that separate the eastern and western parts of the nation.
The wettest periods generally occur during spring and autumn, while winter and summer months tend to be the driest. Much of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers especially in the low-lying areas and relatively cold winters.
The common pheasant also known as the Colchian Pheasant is an endemic bird of Georgia which has been widely introduced throughout the rest of the world as an important game bird.
The species number of invertebrates is considered to be very high but data is distributed across a high number of publications. The spider checklist of Georgia, for example, includes species.
Slightly more than 6, species of fungi , including lichen-forming species, have been recorded from Georgia,   but this number is far from complete.
The true total number of fungal species occurring in Georgia, including species not yet recorded, is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about seven percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.
Archaeological research demonstrates that Georgia has been involved in commerce with many lands and empires since ancient times, largely due its location on the Black Sea and later on the historical Silk Road.
Gold, silver, copper and iron have been mined in the Caucasus Mountains. Georgian wine making is a very old tradition and a key branch of the country's economy.
The country has sizable hydropower resources. For much of the 20th century, Georgia's economy was within the Soviet model of command economy. Since the fall of the USSR in , Georgia embarked on a major structural reform designed to transition to a free market economy.
As with all other post-Soviet states , Georgia faced a severe economic collapse. The civil war and military conflicts in South Ossetia and Abkhazia aggravated the crisis.
The agriculture and industry output diminished. By the gross domestic product had shrunk to a quarter of that of Since the early 21st century visible positive developments have been observed in the economy of Georgia.
The ban on imports of Georgian wine to Russia, one of Georgia's biggest trading partners, and break of financial links was described by the IMF Mission as an "external shock".
Around the same time, the National Bank of Georgia stated that ongoing inflation in the country was mainly triggered by external reasons, including Russia's economic embargo.
Main exports are vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores. Since coming to power the Saakashvili administration accomplished a series of reforms aimed at improving tax collection.
Among other things a flat income tax was introduced in As of , 54 percent of the population lived below the national poverty line but by poverty decreased to 34 percent, by it is In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Georgia is ranked the last among its bordering neighbors in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.
Georgia ranked number 58 overall in the NRI ranking,  up from 60 in Tourism is an increasingly significant part of the Georgian economy.
In , more than 1. Today transport in Georgia is provided by rail , road, ferry, and air. Traditionally, the country was located on an important north—south trade route between European Russia and the Near East and Turkey.
In recent years Georgia has invested large amounts of money in the modernization of its transport networks. The Georgian railways represent an important transport artery for the Caucasus, as they make up the largest proportion of a route linking the Black and Caspian Seas.
In turn, this has allowed them to benefit in recent years from increased energy exports from neighbouring Azerbaijan to the European Union, Ukraine, and Turkey.
Since the Georgian Railways have been undergoing a rolling program of fleet-renewal and managerial restructuring which is aimed at making the service provided more efficient and comfortable for passengers.
Air and maritime transport is developing in Georgia, with the former mainly used by passengers and the latter for transport of freight.
Georgia currently has four international airports, the largest of which is by far Tbilisi International Airport , hub for Georgian Airways , which offers connections to many large European cities.
Other airports in the country are largely underdeveloped or lack scheduled traffic, although, as of late, efforts have been made to solve both these problems.
Scheduled and chartered passenger ferry services link Georgia with Bulgaria,  Romania, Turkey and Ukraine. Like most native Caucasian peoples , the Georgians do not fit into any of the main ethnic categories of Europe or Asia.
The present day Georgian or Kartvelian nation is thought to have resulted from the fusion of aboriginal, autochthonous inhabitants with immigrants who moved into South Caucasus from the direction of Anatolia in remote antiquity.
Ethnic Georgians form about The census recorded , ethnic Russians , or 6. According to statistics, Georgia gets most of its immigrants from Russia In the early s, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union , violent separatist conflicts broke out in the autonomous region of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region.
The most widespread language group is the Kartvelian family , which includes Georgian, Svan , Mingrelian and Laz.
Georgian is the primary language of The goal was to import English speakers from across the world to ensure that all children in Georgia spoke English in four years and replace Russian as a second language.
Today The special status of the Georgian Orthodox Church is officially recognised in the Constitution of Georgia and the Concordat of , although religious institutions are separate from the state, and every citizen has the right of religion.
Main religions . Religious minorities of Georgia include Muslims In Abkhazia , a minority of the Abkhaz population is also Sunni Muslim, alongside the faithful of the revived Abkhaz pagan faith.
There are also smaller communities of Greek Muslims of Pontic Greek origin and Armenian Muslims , both of whom are descended from Ottoman-era converts to Turkish Islam from Eastern Anatolia who settled in Georgia following the Lala Mustafa Pasha's Caucasian campaign that led to the Ottoman conquest of the country in Georgian Jews trace the history of their community to the 6th century BC; their numbers have dwindled in the last decades due to high levels of immigration to Israel.
Despite the long history of religious harmony in Georgia,  there have been instances of religious discrimination and violence against "nontraditional faiths", such as Jehovah's Witnesses , by followers of the defrocked Orthodox priest Basil Mkalavishvili.
In addition to traditional religious organizations, Georgia retains secular and irreligious segments of society 0. The education system of Georgia has undergone sweeping modernizing, although controversial, reforms since Students with a secondary school certificate have access to higher education.
Only the students who have passed the Unified National Examinations may enroll in a state-accredited higher education institution, based on ranking of the scores received at the exams.
Most of these institutions offer three levels of study: a Bachelor's Program three to four years ; a Master's Program two years , and a Doctoral Program three years.
There is also a Certified Specialist's Program that represents a single-level higher education program lasting from three to six years.
Tbilisi has become the main artery of the Georgian educational system, particularly since the creation of the First Georgian Republic in permitted the establishment of modern, Georgian-language educational institutions.
Tbilisi is the home to several major institutions of higher education in Georgia, notably the Tbilisi State Medical University , which was founded as Tbilisi Medical Institute in , and the Tbilisi State University TSU , which was established in and remains the oldest university in the entire Caucasus region.
Georgian culture evolved over thousands of years from its foundations in the Iberian and Colchian civilizations. The Georgian language, and the Classical Georgian literature of the poet Shota Rustaveli , were revived in the 19th century after a long period of turmoil, laying the foundations of the romantics and novelists of the modern era such as Grigol Orbeliani , Nikoloz Baratashvili , Ilia Chavchavadze , Akaki Tsereteli , Vazha-Pshavela.
Georgia is known for its folklore , traditional music, dances, theatre, cinema, and art. Georgian architecture has been influenced by many civilizations.
There are several different architectural styles for castles , towers , fortifications and churches.
The Upper Svaneti fortifications, and the castle town of Shatili in Khevsureti , are some of the finest examples of medieval Georgian castle architecture.
Georgian ecclesiastic art is one of the most notable aspects of Georgian Christian architecture , which combines the classical dome style with the original basilica style, forming what is known as the Georgian cross-dome style.
Cross-dome architecture developed in Georgia during the 9th century; before that, most Georgian churches were basilicas.
Other examples of Georgian ecclesiastic architecture can be found outside Georgia: Bachkovo Monastery in Bulgaria built in by the Georgian military commander Grigorii Bakuriani , Iviron monastery in Greece built by Georgians in the 10th century , and the Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem built by Georgians in the 9th century.
Television, magazines, and newspapers in Georgia are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising , subscription , and other sales-related revenues.
The Constitution of Georgia guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition , the Georgian media system is under transformation.
The media environment of Georgia remains the freest and most diverse in the South Caucasus ,  despite the long-term politicisation and polarisation affecting the sector.
The political struggle for control over the public broadcaster have left it without a direction in too. A large percentage of Georgian households have a television, and most have at least one radio.
Most of Georgia's media companies are headquartered in its capital and largest city, Tbilisi. Georgia has an ancient musical tradition, which is primarily known for its early development of polyphony.
Georgian polyphony is based on three vocal parts, a unique tuning system based on perfect fifths, and a harmonic structure rich in parallel fifths and dissonances.
Georgian cuisine and wine have evolved through the centuries, adapting traditions in each era. One of the most unusual traditions of dining is supra , or Georgian table , which is also a way of socialising with friends and family.
The head of supra is known as tamada. He also conducts the highly philosophical toasts, and makes sure that everyone is enjoying themselves. Various historical regions of Georgia are known for their particular dishes: for example, khinkali meat dumplings , from eastern mountainous Georgia, and khachapuri , mainly from Imereti , Samegrelo and Adjara.
In addition to traditional Georgian dishes, the foods of other countries have been brought to Georgia by immigrants from Russia, Greece, and recently China.
The most popular sports in Georgia are football , basketball , rugby union , wrestling , judo , and weightlifting. Historically, Georgia has been famous for its physical education; the Romans were fascinated with Georgians' physical qualities after seeing the training techniques of ancient Iberia.
Within Georgia, one of the most popularized styles of wrestling is the Kakhetian style. There were a number of other styles in the past that are not as widely used today.
For example, the Khevsureti region of Georgia has three different styles of wrestling. Other popular sports in 19th century Georgia were polo , and Lelo , a traditional Georgian game later replaced by rugby union.
The first and only race circuit in the Caucasian region is located in Georgia. Dinamo Tbilisi won the prestigious Euroleague competition in Other notable basketball players are two times Euroleague champion Giorgi Shermadini and Euroleague players Manuchar Markoishvili and Viktor Sanikidze.
Sport is regaining its popularity in the country in recent years. Georgia national basketball team qualified to EuroBasket during the last three tournaments since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Website Gov. Main article: Names of Georgia country. Main article: History of Georgia country. Main article: Prehistoric Georgia. Main article: Georgia within the Russian Empire.
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Main articles: Administrative divisions of Georgia country , Abkhazia , and Adjara. See also: Occupied territories of Georgia.
Samegrelo- Zemo Svaneti. Samtskhe- Javakheti. Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti. Shida Kartli. Kvemo Kartli. Mtskheta- Mtianeti. Main article: Geography of Georgia country.
See also: Borders of the continents. Main article: Climate of Georgia country. Main articles: Economy of Georgia country and Agriculture in Georgia country.
Main article: Tourism in Georgia country. Main article: Transport in Georgia country. Main article: Demographics of Georgia country.
For languages of the U. Main article: Religion in Georgia country. Muslim Armenian Apostolic 2. Roman Catholic 0.
Others 2. Main article: Culture of Georgia country. Main article: Media of Georgia. Main article: Music of Georgia country.
Main article: Georgian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Georgia. Georgia country portal. In Abkhazian AR , also Abkhazian. Parliament of Georgia.
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